Introduction to the Book
Background Knowledge Probe
- What is something that you have that you have used in a way it wasn’t meant to be used in order to do something you value?
- What is a notable time when you have come together with others to struggle through a complex problem and come out on the other side with a workable solution?
Most girls are taught to avoid failure and risk. To smile pretty, play it safe, get all A’s. Boys, on the other hand, are taught to play rough, swing high, crawl to the top of the monkey bars and then jump off head first. By the time they’re adults and whether they’re negotiating a raise or even asking someone out on a date, men are habituated to take risk after risk. They’re rewarded for it. It’s often said in Silicon Valley that no one even takes you seriously unless you’ve had two failed startups. In other words, we’re raising our girls to be perfect and we’re raising our boys to be brave.Some people worry about our federal deficit. But I worry about our bravery deficit. Our economy, our society, we’re losing out because we’re not raising our girls to be brave. The bravery deficit is the reason why women are underrepresented in STEM, in C-suites, in boardrooms, in Congress, and pretty much everywhere you look.Reshma Saujani, “Teach Girls Bravery, Not Perfection”
This book seeks to advance the fail-forward and growth mindsets of all, especially those who have been oppressed through works advancing the power of others over them. We will work together to discover ways to advance power, both power within and power with others. We will work to advance our technical skills, but also and even more, our progressive community engagement skills, our critical social + technical skills, and our cognitive, information, and social emotional skills. To do this, we will also work to advance our collective leadership through storytelling, and especially counterstorytelling, within a framing of reciprocity.
The general learning outcome objectives of this book are to help readers:
- Develop a clear hands-on working understanding of the physical and software layers of computers and networks. As learners journey through the units of this book, they will hopefully develop a growing comfort and competency: working with the basic nuts and bolts of computers and networks; appropriately integrating components to serve as tools for computational and information processing; and performing basic troubleshooting.
- Evolve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the sociotechnical artifacts we use as a daily part of our professional lives. The physical + software + human + social whole that is a digital artifact is greater than the sum of the parts. Beyond developing technical competencies, we need to develop an awareness of, and skillsets to influence, the emergent properties that come from specific combinations of the different social and technical building blocks of information systems.
- Develop a critical approach to sociotechnical artifacts. Social systems are constructs of economy, politics, matters of race, class, and gender, social institutions, and other cultural dynamics. Design, diffusion, and implementation of technical innovations both reflect and shape these social systems. Critically examining social + technical information systems from multiple individual and societal perspectives opens up consideration of idealized expectations vs. actual positive and negative impacts within specific user communities.
- Advance community agency in appropriating technology to achieve our individual and community development goals through a reconsidered digital literacy learning and practice. Far from being just passive adopters of different digital technology artifacts used to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information, as Information Science professionals we have opportunities to initiate and lead communities of practice, leveraging the plurality of our community’s social and technical insights.
Humans are analog. We hear, see, and feel in a rich range of frequencies, hues, and senses. We actively create and use these analog circuits to network with others around us. We actively live as highly functioning analog networked information systems. And we do this quite well!
On the other hand, programming code and the computers used to run that code are primarily digital and binary — zeros and ones. Digital, too, is the Internet, cell networks, Bluetooth devices, and other inter-networking systems we generally think of when we speak of networked information systems.
Makerspaces and other Maker-type environments are places to encourage people to gather together to create, invent, and learn. They are analog networked information systems first and foremost. Such spaces often serve as a counter to consumption and individualism. By their very nature, Makerspaces also embrace change. While you may certainly go to a Makerspace to attend workshops on traditional crafts, you may also find side-by-side ways to create using new digital technologies. But always the focus remains on personalization rather than assembly-line production.
As such, cognitive, socio-emotional, information, and progressive community engagement skills are as much or more important than specific technical skills within Maker-type environments. Cognitive skills include the ability to logically analyze and organize problems in ways that allow use of and tools to help solve them, and to generalize new processes to other problems. Socio-emotional skills include the ability to communicate and collaborate with others, along with personal confidence, persistence, and tolerance, in order to tackle complex, ambiguous, open-ended problems. Information skills include the ability to seek, evaluate, interpret, and apply relevant and trustworthy information across multiple media. Progressive community engagement skills advance our ability to work together in communities of practice advancing and making continued use of collective leadership and individuals’ unique cultural wealth and capability sets to help each member better achieve their valued beings and doings. Technical skills, then, become a response to needs identified using cognitive, socio-emotional, and information skills. They are just-in-time in-fill learning.
Combined, the intent of this book is not to exclusively provide technical skills as specific learning outcomes. Rather, the primary goal is to use exercises to teach the technical logic of electronics, coding, and networking in a way that can be generalized to various problems at hand and the unique technical skills needed within that context. At the same time, it is to expand our understanding of the social systems that have applied this technical logic to various design problems in ways that have positively addressed some issues while potentially negatively addressing others. The intent is to also help build up confidence and persistence to tackle ever-more-complex technology problems, while discovering that we are shaped by people, including the creators of this book, who worked to create these sociotechnical artifacts. And those who created the artifacts were shaped by other people who created earlier works. And you will begin shaping others as you innovate-in-use the artifacts associated with the book in a way it wasn’t necessarily meant to be used in order to do something you value.
Ultimately, the aim of the book is to prime the readers for a lifetime of co-exploring within Maker-type environments as information professionals. It is to recognize that at their best, these studios bring together diverse populations of people as a collective to address a key issue of shared interest in ways that maximize individual and social benefits and minimize individual and social harms. It is to identify what participation and inclusion mean within the contexts that are unique to each community of practice and each issue of shared interest. It is to begin to identify the everyday technologies that may be unseen and displaced because of an overly narrow definition of what should be considered appropriate, and the local innovators whose technologies might be championed if only they were made visible. And it is to clarify ways each person might serve in the moment as an innovator-in-use of the technologies to make it practical and appropriate for their functional diversities, that is, their ways of better achieving that which they most value being and doing within a given context.
Some Useful Working Standards and Frameworks
The best works in a Maker-type environment are works of community, in community, and for community. They combine active hands-on innovation with individual and corporate reflection — collective leadership with Paulo Freire’s action-reflection cycles and the community inquiry model developed initially by John Dewey and Jane Addams and further advanced especially through the works of Bertram “Chip” Bruce and Ann Peterson-Kemp. Combined, the outcome is development of a critical conceptual understanding of innovation-in-use from a person-centered perspective. This is a book meant to be done as part of a community of practice.
To facilitate these works of collective leadership, action and reflection, and community inquiry, those working through this book are encouraged to test out a range of community of practice standards and frameworks that might apply within our professional practice moving forward. What follows is a short introduction to each. We’ll revisit and expand upon these frameworks as we go through the book.
Community of Practice
A core idea within the social constructivism of John Dewey and others as incorporated throughout this book is that learning is constructed by social interaction between an individual and the social environment. It cannot happen by an individual doing independent work. Sometimes this learning community comprises a range of people within a local community. At other times, it is a community of practice formed by a group of people engaging in a process of collective learning. While in both of these learning community examples the objective is knowing and learning so as to achieve a specific human endeavor, the means by which this objective can best be achieved varies considerably. As this book is written first and foremost as a textbook for use in classrooms, after-school sessions, workshops, and other Maker-type studio environments, the structure of, and activities within, the book are designed to especially facilitate communities of practice.
In “Communities of practice: a brief introduction,” Etienne Wenger provides this nutshell description of the term:
Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.
Members of a community of practice are people with a shared domain of interest that distinguishes them from other people as it applies within this context. This may be a multigenerational gathering of people all living within a specific local neighborhood, a gathering of people living within different neighborhoods of a diverse city who all are part of a local club, a gathering of professionals from across the nation or world meeting using online technology, and so many other communities of practice. They are people who engage in joint activities and discussions to share information and help each other, whether in a specific physical location at which they meet on a daily basis, or via an online forum in which they meet synchronously periodically with other asynchronous meetings as infill. In so doing, they commit time and effort to work as formal or informal practitioners so as to develop a shared body of resources. Your past and future interests may vary greatly, but for a time and for a specific purpose as related the contents of this book, you may find it of great value to become a community of practice within this context.
When people gather to mobilize human, cultural, and technological resources in ways that address opportunities and challenges of common interest and for the common good, then bidirectional learning, joint action, shared responsibility, and mutual accountability have an opportunity to blossom. This shift away from prioritizing individual change agents to instead emphasize collective leadership serves to facilitate the crossing of boundaries of all types, including age, race, gender, income, culture, and religion. Through a cycle of preparation through trust building, of co-constructing a purpose and strategic plan, of implementation through allyship and collective action, and of sustaining of the work as part of the community fabric, robust strategies and partnerships come together to advance long-term impact.
As your community of practice work together through the units, you’ll find various “Do Something New!” innovation-in-use/remix prompts encouraging you to make use of collective leadership to mobilize the sessions of a unit in ways that may address opportunities and challenges of common interest, even if just as a small prototype of a larger collective leadership cycle down the road as you enter into other communities of practice. There’s an International Leadership Association interview of leadership educator and practitioner Kirstin Phelps and textbook author Martin Wolske further highlighting digital leadership development through technology education . And the Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development and the Kellogg Leadership for Community Change provide a useful starting guide on collective leadership for community change.
Inquiry-based learning is open-ended, democratic, participatory engagement connected to people’s values, history, and lived experiences. It builds from John Dewey’s framing of logic as the theory of inquiry. Community inquiry as framed in this post by Bertram “Chip” Bruce further emphasizes collaborative activity and knowledge creation conducted of, for, and by communities as living social organisms. We learn best when doing things that matter to us. And so community comes together to inquire about, that is, ask questions with regard to, their opportunities and challenges, to enter into collaborative investigation and creation, and to set aside time for individual and corporate reflection and discussion, leading to a new cycle of asking, investigating, creating, reflection, and discussing. These cycles don’t always happen in a set order. But the best community inquiries strategically incorporate each of these into their works, even when they sometimes seem out of place or of lesser value at a given moment. This community-driven inquiry can also lead to inquiry about the nature and meaning of the community itself, and the webs of privilege and oppression that shape and are shaped by the community and those impacting that community.
The Community of Practice framework above is presented as a likely starting understanding of the type of learning community many users of this textbook may be joining into as they travel through the book. The Collective Leadership framework then highlights the importance of crossing boundaries of all types to better achieve collective action in a way that advances the community fabric. Community Inquiry is a framework that further emphasizes the social organism that is community. While this book is an outcome of two decades of work bringing digital technologies and literacies into diverse communities, especially focusing on those historically marginalized, key to each has been the community inquiry practitioner dialogue in community, with community, and for community. This book, then, is intended to help advance an understanding of the nuts and bolts of analog and digital hardware, software, and networks while also questioning the underlying assumptions of specific sociotechnical artifacts so as to facilitate the deepening of the community fabric. In exploring the book using the frameworks of Community of Practice, Collective Leadership, and Community Inquiry, the intent is to help the learning community consider the ways the social and technical chapters within each session of the three units of this book may serve as effective infill to advance the additional, community-specific learning outcome objectives.
Paulo Freire was an adult educator and philosopher from Brazil, who in the 1960s worked to develop educational projects and went on to significantly inform and advocate critical pedagogy. He not only taught reading and writing to illiterate adults, but at the same time worked to help raise awareness of the agency people had to bring a new reality into existence. He used techniques that would be familiar to us today: show a picture, show a word, help people to pronounce the word and associate it with the picture, connect the syllables of the word with specific sounds, generalize to other words. But as Freire went through these steps, he also encouraged learners to combine syllables in unique ways to create new words. And he encouraged them to see how the old word was often associated with objects that served to oppress the learner (for instance, moving from learning the word brick to considering that the learner manufactured for elites who paid them a sub-living wage and then used the brick to build walled fortresses that kept wealth in and others out). At the same time they made connections of syllable sounds with new words, they also made connections between creating their own new words with creating new, more just realities.
While Freire developed his approach to link together small group reflection with positive action for change and development within an adult literacy context, he and many others after him have taken this action-reflection critical thinking approach into many different arenas, including the sociotechnical realm. We first must move away from a “banking” model of education in which expert teachers deposit their knowledge into passive students. Instead we must enter into a problem-posing educational process that launches a dialectic approach to knowledge combined with abductive logic to facilitate a work of conscientization, that of perceiving in new ways the existing social reality and then working to bring about a new reality.
Core to each unit of the book are action-reflection cycles in which we first learn the words and concepts underlying technologies, and the social contexts that have shaped and are shaped by these technologies. From here, works of action and reflection within learning communities are meant to help identify with aspects of the situations related to these sociotechnical artifacts. In so doing, the intent is to help each person feel themselves within the situations related to the unit in ways that help bring a new lens of understanding on the sociotechnical artifact and also the broader sociotechnical systems that make use of these types of technologies. In this way, the initial codifications of the words and concepts that have now been decodified can be recodified so as to understand in new ways the social organism around us and to advance the community fabric using the frameworks of community inquiry and collective leadership.
Information Search Process
Community inquiry and Freirian action-reflection cycles employ varied, rich information seeking behaviors. Carol Kuhlthau has worked extensively to explore the daily lives of those applying information literacy to advance information seeking behaviors. Her resulting theory, the information search process, brings together the evolution of feelings, thoughts, and actions commonly experienced by those seeking information as a person passes through the six stages of the search process:
- Task initiation is most often associated with feelings of uncertainty.
- Topic selection, on the other hand, leads towards increased optimism.
- Prefocus exploration leads back to feelings of confusion, frustration, and doubt. Combined, these first three stages are more closely aligned with ambiguous thoughts and general actions seeking relevant information.
- Focus formulation begins to bring about greater clarity and increased interest.
- Information collection deepens a sense of direction and confidence, with more specificity of thought, and actions seeking more pertinent information.
- Presentation leads to feelings of satisfaction or disappointment through actions of documenting.
Together, the information search process provides a helpful model of cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of knowledge construction that apply equally to a wide range of information seeking activities and regardless of search venue, including those executed to advance our digital literacy and working within digital environments.
By guiding inquiry through each of the six stages during information seeking within each of the three units, your community of practice will more effectively move away from simple unit information collection and compilation, thereby missing critical stages of learning. As such, the model may also serve as a helpful diagnostic tool, for instance regarding individual and community of practice focus formulation informing action-reflection community inquiry.
Pair programming is increasingly common in software development. Two programmers collaborate on design, coding, and testing, with qualitative evidence suggesting the subsequent design is better, resulting in simpler code that is easier to extend. Further, whether the pair programming occurs between two novice programmers, between a novice programmer and a more experienced programmer, or between two experienced programmers, people learn significantly more about the system and about software development as both participants bring in unique insights, as long as what is being done is not a repetitive task. Conversation between the programming pair can occur at many levels as the driver working at the keyboard takes charge of all changes made in the program and the navigator observes all the code that is entered, considers coding options, works to spot and address problems, considers and recommends simplifications, helps with programming style, and designs and verifies testing. 
Extensive testing of the hands-on activities throughout this book have indicated the substantial value of collaborative programming in small groups of two or three people. Further, while pair programming is specifically associated with computer programming environments, small group collaborations in which one drives the specific hands-on work and the other(s) navigates has also proved very useful in doing the electronics and networking exercises as well. Throughout, it is essential that participants switch roles regularly from driver to navigator and back. This technique is not about the expert doing while the novice observes. It is about collaboration that recognizes the unique expertise each brings to bear, including bringing in new sites when this is a person’s first time doing something.
In working through specific hands-on activities in this book, we’ll make use of a range of electronic components, from individual components like light emitting diodes and switches, to complex circuit boards like the Circuit Playground Express microcontroller and the Raspberry Pi microcomputer. There are many variations of these components and the supporting electrical conductors and tools that may shape how you can/should work with various parts to achieve hands-on activities. While there are many sources from which you can purchase these, you may find it helpful to purchase them through Adafruit. That way, the specific details of the steps and diagrams of the activities will match the components on hand. (Last updated June 2020. This list will be updated on occasion to match revisions made to the technologies of the day.)
We recommend the following items for your toolkit:
- The Raspberry Pi Starter Pack which includes:
- The Raspberry Pi 3 microcomputer, Pi 3 Case, Power Adapter, and 16 GB SD Card with Operating System.
- Breadboard, Cobbler, a 40-pin Ribbon Cable, and Jumper Wires to provide an electronics prototyping platform that can be connected to the Raspberry Pi.
- A USB to TTL Serial Cable, the old standby for debugging and logging into special purpose devices ‘headless,’ that is, without a keyboard, mouse, and monitor, and that we’ll use to connect the Raspberry Pi to a personal laptop.
- A package with basic electronic components, including Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Resistors, Potentiometer Variable Resistors, a Capacitor, and a Photo Cell.
- The Circuit Playground Express Pack (Individual Kit; Educator’s Pack), which includes:
- The Circuit Playground Express microcontroller and USB Power Cable.
- Small Alligator Clip Test Leads.
- Multicolor Pack of LED Sequin Integrated Circuits.
- Additional individual components, including:
- A pack of smaller, diffused white LEDs.
- A second 16 GB MicroSD card with Operating System.
- Small Alligator Clip to Male Jumper Wires.
- A second USB to TTL Serial Cable, which can be used to connect the Circuit Playground Express to the Raspberry Pi. NOTE: while this could be done directly using the TX/RX pins on the Raspberry Pi’s General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) connector and the Circuit Playground Express, new versions of the Raspberry Pi assign the primary TX/RX serial ports to console functions, something that we’ll use to provide essential microcomputer access in earlier exercises.
There are times when members of a community of practice have previously performed activities similar to the ones in this book, and so may want to take a deeper dive this time around by choosing their own topic-related adventure. In other cases, creative juices may begin to flow while doing an activity and an individual, pair, or team may want to do some remixing of the activity in creative ways. To that end, while not required for the primary activities within the book, here are a few electronics I find helpful at times:
- Additional small and medium male to male cables as helpful.
- Conductive nylon fabric tape: For extending the capacitive touch sensors of the Circuit Playground Express. This is needed if you choose to build a toolbox trumpet instead of playing the notes by simply touching the Circuit Playground Express touch sensors, and may also be used for the creation of wearable electronics.
- Transistors: Small electronic switches allowing control of electrical flow within a circuit without using programming code.
- Power blocking diodes: To provide reverse polarity protection from a power source and circuitry to avoid zapping sensitive electronics.
- Diffused RGB (tri-color) 10mm LED: These can be used to do creative color mixing using a single LED.
About the Toolbox
I grew up, literally, in the family sawmill. I don’t remember far enough back to remember being carried into the mill by my mother, or my first ramblings through it as a toddler. But I remember that at age five I was paid 50 cents an hour by my parents to sweep up. And I remember that as an apprentice, wanting to do so much more but being instructed to just sweep and listen, I started discovering the music of the sawmill. The most alarming of sounds didn’t cause a flinch in my parents, but a quiet change in pitch would send them around rapidly turning everything off.
And I slowly learned the trade in ways that I can’t, even now, tell you I know. Some are pretty straightforward, such as how to build a basic toolbox. But some, like how to fix an electronic circuit to keep a light or a power tool up and running, have just become second nature — hidden knowledge that’s hard to share with others.
Then, when I was 13, the logger who brought us the logs we used in the sawmill to build pallets for local businesses was severely injured. He ended up healing almost completely, but at the time he didn’t think he would. And so he sold his logging equipment to us at a bargain. And my dad bought it because he figured I was now 13 and advanced enough as an apprentice to partner with him in cutting down and preparing trees for use in the sawmill. So I became a lumberjack as well. And as I was in junior high and was just learning how to write computer programs — it was the mid-70s after all — I tried adding in digital tools to measure the board feet of the logs.
It was an early discovery of how the old standby analog tools can be so much better in the field than digital tools, sometimes, and an important introduction by my dad to the importance of focusing on people first.
Truly, I learned much from that part of the trade beyond just doing the work. Our family was invited in to log amongst farms seeking to preserve the woods because my dad strove to carefully and selectively fell trees. And we started saving more and more of the premium lumber for use on projects around the house as gifts of the trees. The trees were more than just things to be bought and sold. They were “more-than-human people,” as Robin Wall Kimmerer shares in her book Braiding Sweetgrass. Even after death, trees gift to us so much if we take the time to discover it. And, as Kimmerer notes, I began to understand that we need to learn to “remember to remember…to pick up what was left for us: the stories, the teachings, the songs, each other, our more-than-human relatives that were scattered along that path.”
Sometime in my late teens or early 20s, through many physical experiences and through spoken and written words, I increasingly discovered how the tulip poplar, or whitewood, has been a central resource for the creation of North America. Even before the landing of the first White Europeans, residents of this land used whitewood in support of their valued beings and doings. And this fastest growing and easiest working of the hardwoods gives itself willingly if we wisely choose which trees to cut down, and to cut it carefully and with respect. And as I learned more, I also discovered it was a “more-than-human” tree. To this day, when I’m feeling low for some reason, I might discover that on a dime I begin feeling better. And if I look around, I’ll discover close at hand a tulip poplar, silently singing its song of support to me. While this is my personal story, over the years I’ve come to find similar stories told by people from different histories and cultures as well.
In 1997 I began teaching the Library and Information Science course Introduction to Networked Information Systems. In 2000, a service-learning component was added in answer to a call by residents of East St. Louis, IL, to provide infill assistance building and upgrading computer labs in support of the community work addressing the digital divide in local neighborhoods. Throughout, at the start of each semester the following quote by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is referenced:
We must rapidly begin the shift from a ‘thing-oriented’ society to a ‘person-oriented’ society. When machines and computers, profit motives and property rights are considered more important than people, the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and militarism are incapable of being conquered.
Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I’ve continuously searched for ways to put into practice these words from Dr. King as part of all my teaching, research, and broader community engagement works. Over and over I’ve joined into communities of practice going out to address the digital divide and advance digital inclusion and equity only to find that I have remained too thing-oriented. And so this book is being created as part of an ongoing search for better ways to become increasingly person-centered.
For many communities of practice working through this book, you will use containers on hand to store your Raspberry Pi toolkits. Know that the diagrams, instructions, images and video featured in this book include a toolbox built from Tulip Poplar. All these activities can be done without the need for the toolbox, so feel encouraged to skip those steps even if you have in hand one of those Tulip Poplar toolboxes. However, whether in practice or in spirit, I hope that they serve you, as they serve me, as inspiration for this person-centered mindset by sharing counterstories of wisdom and knowledge they bring as one of the most noble of trees.
Layout of the Book
To help us advance our full range of skills—social and technical—needed to achieve our [craft]making works, each session in this book includes two thematically-linked chapters, one more social-oriented and one more technical-oriented, devoted to a particular set of activities and associated learning outcomes.
- The social chapter includes a lesson plan with essential works to be reviewed, along with question probes to be incorporated into a professional journal reflection response.
- The technical chapter includes a number of hands-on exercises and short quiz.
Each of these thematically-linked chapters form one session. Sessions are brought together into several larger units:
- Orange Unit: This includes social chapters introducing the book, the underlying perspectives and mindsets, and broader skill sets underlying the framing of a person-centered guide to demystifying technology. The technical chapters introduce the electronics, circuits, and prototyping tools we’ll use through the remainder of the book and beyond.
- Blue Unit: This includes social chapters exploring the histories of race, gender, and technology, the mutual shaping of sociotechnical information systems by innovators, innovators-in-use, and those in between including Adafruit Industries and the Raspberry Pi Foundation. The technical chapters move from individual electronic components to complex circuit boards such as the Raspberry Pi microcomputer and the Circuit Playground Express microcontroller, and explore how these can be used to bring together electronics and programming code so that individuals and communities of practice can shape digital tools in ways that better serve their valued beings and doings.
- Rainbow Unit: This includes social chapters exploring the broader history and design of the Internet, the guiding forces and principles that have shaped and reshaped it, and the new movements and design principles leading to counter-stories and person-centered products. The technical chapters explore and prototype ways to network together a range of circuit boards and operating systems to create a more structured networked information system addressing a design challenge.
The grouping of thematically-linked chapters within specific units builds from two decades of participatory design in community and from community, and from the teaching of these concepts and practices in courses and workshops. However, the use of colors rather than numbers for the units, and the lack of chapter labels for each web page is in recognition of the value of flexibility in how these materials are covered in a specific context and moment in time.
- Wolske, Martin. “Ethical Electronic Consumerism.” Martin Wolske’s Blog, August 15, 2013. https://martin.wolske.site/2013/08/15/ethicalelectronicconsumerism/.
- Kimmerer, Robin. “Reclaiming the Honorable Harvest: Robin Kimmerer at TEDxSitka.” YouTube, August 18, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/embed/Lz1vgfZ3etE.
- Saujani, Reshma. “Teach Girls Bravery, Not Perfection.” YouTube, March 28, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fC9da6eqaqg.
- Dweck, Carol. “The Power of Believing That You Can Improve.” YouTube, December 17, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_X0mgOOSpLU.
Professional Journal Reflections:
- What social and technical contexts do you bring with you into the reading of the written, spoken, and visual texts shared in this book? Share a remembered story or two.
- Why might Robin Wall Kimmerer’s talk be an essential resource for this chapter? How might it relate to the other texts in the chapter, and to the remainder of the book?
- Where might you be in the development of a fail-forward and growth mindset? Why?
- Where might others around you be in the development of a fail-forward and growth mindset? Why?
- Etienne Wenger, "Communities of Practice: A Brief Introduction," October 20, 2011, 1. http://hdl.handle.net/1794/11736. ↵
- Phelps, Kirstin and Wolske, Martin. "Pause for Pedagogy: Perspectives on Digital Leadership Development from Technology Education." International Leadership Development Interview, June 13, 2018. https://youtu.be/Q4dCUie0mUw ↵
- One detailed look at community inquiry in practice can be found in Youth Community Inquiry: New Media for Community and Personal Growth, eds. Bertram C. Bruce, Ann Peterson Bishop, and Nama R. Budhathoki (New York: Peter Lang, 2014). https://doi.org/10.3726/978-1-4539-1201-0. ↵
- For more on the information search process and guided inquiry, see: Carol Kuhlthau, "Guided Inquiry: School Libraries in the 21st Century," School Libraries Worldwide 16, no. 1 (January 2009): 17–28. http://wp.comminfo.rutgers.edu/ckuhlthau2/wp-content/uploads/sites/185/2016/02/GI-School-Librarians-in-the-21-Century.pdf. ↵
- For more on pair programming, see: Jeff Dalton, "Pair Programming," in Great Big Agile (Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2019) 199–200. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-4206-3_42. Franz Zieris and Lutz Prechelt, "Does Pair Programming Pay Off?" In Rethinking Productivity in Software Engineering, ed. Caitlin Sadowski and Thomas Zimmermann (Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2019), 251–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-4221-6_21. Eric Snow, Carol Tate, Daisy Rutstein, and Marie Bienkowski, "Assessment Design Patterns for Computational Thinking Practices in Exploring Computer Science," (Menlo Park, CA: SRI International) 2017. http://pact.sri.com/resources.html. ↵
- Robin Kimmerer, "Mapping a New Geography of Hope: Robin Wall Kimmerer Keynote," July 27, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhQKdJHLDcw&feature=youtu.be. ↵
Specific to electronics, a digital signal is a representation of a physical quantity expressed as a series of the digits 0 and 1, that is, binary. The range of decimal numbers representing physical quantities in our work, for instance 12 seconds, is converted to a binary equivalent, in this case, 1100. In this illustration, the dots along the analog sine wave are data points collected to create the digital representation of the physical quantities.
Specific to electronics, an analog signal is any continuous electric pulse of varying amplitude. If we view a tone playing from a speaker as a sine wave, an increase in amplitude is equivalent to a louder sound from the speaker. An increase in the number of waves within certain period of time is equivalent to a higher pitched tone (perhaps from a middle C note to a middle E note). In these graphs of two different sine waves, the left sine wave plot shows increasing amplitude of the same tone while the right sine wave plot shows a relatively tone held at the same amplitude.