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17 Credit Courses: Teaching Semester- and Year-Long Classes


School and academic librarians may have the opportunity to teach a credit course, either on information literacy or within another campus department such as a first-year experience program. Many of the best practices for instructional design that were presented in Part III of this text are equally applicable to credit courses. As instructors, we should seek out information about our prospective students, use the Backward Design model to identify learning outcomes and plan assessment strategies, and design engaging, learner-centered lessons. At the same time, credit courses bring additional responsibilities, such as writing a syllabus, developing and grading assignments, and providing ongoing feedback to learners. This chapter outlines the process of developing and delivering a credit course with particular attention to topics that have not been addressed in other sections of the text.

Credit courses are offered in all modalities, including face-to-face, asynchronous and synchronous online, and hybrid formats that combine elements of face-to-face and online teaching. While there are unique aspects to teaching and learning in each modality, many best practices cut across all formats, and this chapter addresses face-to-face and online modalities simultaneously.

Planning Your Course

The first step in teaching a credit course is identifying course content and planning how the course will unfold over a semester or year. This process includes learning about the students who will be taking the course, planning learning outcomes and assessments, selecting course materials, developing the syllabus, and possibly creating a course page in the learning management system (LMS). This process can take many weeks, particularly for new instructors, and it can be very helpful to draw on the work and advice of more experienced colleagues. Most instructors are happy to share copies of syllabi and assignments so you can see what materials they are using and how they have sequenced content. This is also the time to check on any institutional requirements; for example, if you are teaching a section of a required course, there may be predetermined learning outcomes or a common textbook you are expected to use.

Learning About Students

As with workshops, the more we know about our potential learners, the better positioned we will be to select course content and design learning activities that meet their needs. Both internal and external sources of information will be helpful. Internally, we can look for institutional data about our students. For example, high school librarians might talk to school counselors to better understand students’ educational and career plans, while academic librarians might contact the registrar’s office for data on students’ academic backgrounds or declared majors. We can also look at where our course falls within the curriculum; an introductory course on information literacy aimed at first-year students will be very different than one that targets upper-division students learners who have declared a major. Colleagues can be an excellent source of information as well; we might ask about their perceptions of student needs or what has worked well for them in the classroom. As noted in Chapter 7, we should be mindful of student privacy when gathering information and be clear that we want only aggregate data, not personally identifiable information.

As we look for external sources for information, many of the resources identified in Chapter 7 can be used to learn about students who will be taking a credit course. For instance, Project Information Literacy has extensive research on students’ information habits and needs that could be used to shape a credit course.

We should also talk directly with our students about their needs and interests. As noted in Chapter 7, we can use pre-assessments like surveys, quizzes, worksheets, and concept maps to determine what students know and where they have gaps in their knowledge and skills. Asking students to complete a personal introduction, either as a written submission in class or via an online forum, is an opportunity to ask students what they would like to learn, allowing us to tailor course content or simply frame existing content in ways that appeal to students.

Applying Backward Design to Credit Courses

Following the Backward Design model introduced in Chapter 8, our next step is to determine the course learning goals and write specific learning outcomes that articulate what students will know or be able to do by the end of the course. Course-level learning outcomes will likely be much broader than the outcomes we would write for a single workshop. In fact, it may take students multiple sessions or the entire semester to master a course-level learning outcome. However, these outcomes should still meet the same criteria as workshop outcomes, including articulating essential knowledge and skills and being measurable.

Once we have written the learning outcomes, we can determine acceptable evidence and plan for course assessments that help us monitor student learning. In credit courses, we may assume that these assessments should become formal assignments, and oftentimes they do. In fact, all of our course assignments should have a clear link to the course outcomes. However, assignments are only one part of assessment in a course. We should also engage in ongoing formative assessment through activities like polls, low-stakes quizzes, worksheets, class discussions, and reflective writing.

The final step is to determine the learning activities and teaching strategies we plan to use. We can draw on the examples provided in Chapter 4, Chapter 11, and Chapter 15 to plan a mix of approaches, always with attention to best practices for accessibility, that will motivate students and allow them to engage with us, the content, and each other. Because we have multiple weeks with our students in a credit-bearing course, we might explore some of the more time-intensive teaching strategies, such as case-based and problem-based learning, discussed in more depth later in this chapter.

Selecting Course Materials

One difference between workshops and credit courses is that in the latter, instructors will assign readings for students to complete outside of class time. These readings can present essential content (negating the need for a lengthy lecture of background information), serve as the basis for in-class activities and discussions, and provide avenues for students to customize course content to their interests.

Textbooks will provide a concise introduction to a topic written in a manner accessible to students. Textbooks may also offer resources, such as timelines, images, glossaries, practice problems, resource lists, and recommended readings for further study, to support learning. If you plan to use a textbook, you will need to select a title well in advance of the semester or school year to accommodate institutional schedules for acquiring materials or stocking bookstore shelves.

However, academic librarians should be aware that the rapidly rising cost of textbooks is a significant concern for students. Before assigning a text that students must purchase, carefully consider how much of the text will be used and whether you could assign a less expensive alternative. Alternately, you could build your course around an open access textbook (like this one!) or a collection of open educational resources that will be free for students. Instructors can check the Open Textbook Library or OER Commons for textbooks, while repositories like Merlot are a good source for all kinds of open resources. And as librarians, we should remember that our libraries provide access to extensive collections of online articles and ebooks that can be used in the classroom.


The foundation of any course is the syllabus; it outlines the course content and requirements, and provides important information students will need, such as instructor policies and due dates. Beyond conveying information, a thoughtfully designed syllabus can set the tone for a productive and engaging course. Instructors can use the syllabus to present a unified, compelling vision of the course or show how it will help students answer intriguing questions or develop professional competencies (Canada, 2013). Warm, friendly, student-centered language will contribute to a positive perception of the course and instructor (Canada, 2013; Slattery & Carlson, 2015; Ludy et al., 2016).

At a minimum, the syllabus should provide information about the course, instructor, assignments and grading, and instructor policies. Syllabi typically include:

  • Course Identification: Give the course number, title, credit hours, days and times of class sessions, and classroom location.
  • Instructor Information: Provide names, contact information, and office hours for the instructor and any teaching assistants. It can be helpful to clarify expectations for how often the instructor responds to email (e.g., daily on weekdays and once on weekends) or when it is appropriate to call or text (e.g., between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.).
  • Course Description: Provide a copy of the course description from the course catalog. In addition, you can include a brief introduction that describes the course goals and explains how the course will be run (e.g., seminar-style where active participation is expected).
  • Learning Outcomes: List the course-level learning outcomes; if applicable, you can also list any departmental or institutional outcomes the course fulfills.
  • Texts: Provide complete citations for all required texts as well as supplemental readings and resources and indicate which will need to be purchased and which will be freely available. If you plan to list shorter readings elsewhere, such as in the daily or weekly schedule, you can add a general note about access to these supplemental readings.
  • Assignments and Grading: Provide descriptions for all assignments, the relative weight of each assignment, due dates, submission instructions, and a course grading scale. Indicating how quickly work will be graded (e.g., “assignments will be returned within one week”) can establish reasonable expectations and decrease inquiries from students. One of the instructors, Melissa, also provides an assignment calendar that lists every due date as a supplement to her syllabus; this feature is universally popular with her students (see Example 17.1). Although assignment calendars may duplicate information available elsewhere in the syllabus or assignment directions, students find it very helpful to have a quick reference guide they can transfer to their personal calendars or use as a checklist.
  • Policies: State any course and institutional policies, such as those for attendance, participation, late and missed work, accommodations for students with disabilities, and academic integrity. While it is important to be clear and upfront about course policies, Weimer (2018) cautions us against overwhelming students. She notes, “Rules are fine, but a plethora of prohibitions dampen the motivation to learn.” In addition to limiting ourselves to essential policies, we can maintain a warm syllabus by framing policies with positive, learning-centered language. Example 17.2 provides samples of this kind of framing.
  • Technical Requirements and Support: Provide information about equipment and software requirements and links to a campus help desk. This information is particularly important in online courses, where students will rely on technology for every aspect of the course.
  • Learning Resources and Support: Provide information about campus support services such as writing centers, libraries, and computer labs. As Wong (2019, p. 126) notes, while “we might assume that students are already aware of these services, many students, in particular first-generation and international students, are unaware of the resources and services these offices provide. Promoting awareness of such services and encouraging students to use them can increase rates of student success and level the playing field for struggling students.”
  • Communication Expectations: As discussed in Chapter 5, instructors should establish norms that create a respectful, inclusive classroom environment. We might remind students to use inclusive language, respect others’ views, and be civil when disagreeing. In online courses, it can also be helpful to outline expectations for the mechanics of forum contributions, such as using proper grammar and punctuation, avoiding slang, and/or citing sources.
  • Course Schedule: Provide a course schedule with weekly or daily topics, assigned readings, and due dates (see Example 17.3 for a sample course schedule entry). Even if you are not prepared to offer a detailed schedule, outlining the major units can help students see how course topics fit together and plan ahead for assignments. While we should strive to stick to the planned schedule as much as possible, it can be helpful to acknowledge that changes may happen for reasons such as inclement weather or student needs.

Keep in mind that departments and institutions may have additional syllabus requirements; new instructors should look for a syllabus template or other guiding document as part of preparing for a new course.


Example 17.1: Excerpt of an Assignment Calendar

Mon., Jan. 20: Post an introduction to the Introduction forum.

Fri., Jan. 24: Respond to at least one peer’s introduction.

Fri., Jan. 31: Ask a Manager Discussion 1

Fri., Feb. 7: Ask a Manager Discussion 2

Fri., Feb. 14: Ask a Manager Discussion 3

Sun., Feb. 23: Candidate Evaluation Rubric and Interview Questions


Example 17.2: Sample Course Policies that Use Warm Language

Attendance Policy for an Online Class

You are expected to attend all weekly class sessions. Our discussions and activities are an essential part of your learning in the course, and I look forward to everyone’s contributions. However, I understand that you may need to miss class on occasion due to illness or work/family commitments. Please try to minimize absences to no more than one to two per semester. If you will miss class, please let me know, and plan to listen to the recording of the class session promptly.

Policy on Late Work

Assignments are due by the end of the day stated in the syllabus. I will not be up grading at midnight, so you have an automatic grace period until the next morning. If you need an extension beyond that, please email me with a reasonable explanation and an estimate of when you can complete the work. I am generally very flexible about extensions! If I do not hear from you or if you make late work a habit, the following penalties will apply:

  • Forum Posts: I accept posts up to 24 hours late for partial credit.
  • Assignments: I deduct 10 percent for every day an assignment is late.


Example 17.3: Sample Course Schedule Entry

January 22: Welcome and Course Overview

Essential Readings:

  • Ancona, Deborah, et. al. “In Praise of the Incomplete Leader.” Harvard Business Review (Feb. 2007): 92-100. [link to article online]
  • Ettarh, Fobazi. 2018. “Vocational Awe and Librarianship: The Lies We Tell Ourselves.” In the Library with the Lead Pipe. [link to article online]
  • Skim the following statements of competencies for library leaders:
    • Library Leadership & Management Association (LLAMA). American Library Association. “Leadership and Management Competencies.” [link]
    • Medical Library Association (MLA). “Professional Competencies” (focus on Competency 4 – Leadership & Management) [link]
    • New Mexico State Library. “Core Competencies for NM Library Staff.” (focus on competency 4. Management) [link]
  • Ask a Manager (please read for the duration of the semester) [link]

Due This Week:

  • Introduce yourself! Please include your preferred name (and pronouns if you like), experience in the iSchool, professional plans, and what drew you to this course. Please also include a photo and a bit of trivia about yourself. Respond to at least one peer’s introduction. [Introductions forum; 5 points; initial post due Mon., Jan. 20, response due Fri., Jan. 24]


The syllabus should be distributed on the first day of class or even earlier if using a learning management system, and instructors should take time to review key information and answer student questions. In a face-to-face or synchronous online class, this can be done in class. In an asynchronous class, instructors can record a brief introduction to the syllabus, assign a short quiz or scavenger hunt to encourage students to review the syllabus carefully, and/or create a forum or use a tool like for syllabus questions. Ensuring that your syllabus is attractive and formatted for clarity and accessibility will also encourage students to read and regularly consult this important document.

Learning Management System

The learning management system fulfills a purpose similar to the syllabus in organizing and presenting course materials to support student learning and engagement. While we may associate learning management systems with online courses, many institutions also support course spaces for face-to-face courses so faculty can post resources, accept online assignment submissions, and post student grades.

Most learning management systems provide a wealth of tools for students and instructors, including options to upload and link to content; post and send announcements; engage via discussion forums; create polls, surveys, and quizzes to solicit student feedback and assess learning; and submit and grade assignments. As we develop our course sites, we should utilize the features and tools that best support our learning goals or foster meaningful communication with students. For example, almost all online courses will utilize discussion forums for peer interaction, but few courses will need a wiki.

Regardless of the features used, the course site should be organized for clarity and ease of access. General resources like the syllabus and assignments can be provided on a home tab or at the top of the site, with additional resources grouped by topic or the date on which they will be used. The course organization should be consistent, with sections and resources clearly labeled. Instructors should also take care to follow accessibility practices—for example, by adding alt text to images and using descriptive text when linking to outside resources. See Activity 17.1 for a brief reflective exercise on syllabi and learning management systems.


Activity 17.1: Reflecting on Syllabi and Learning Management Systems

Syllabi and the information in a learning management system are often our first introductions to a course, sometimes even before we meet the instructors themselves. Think back on some of the syllabi and LMS pages you have interacted with and answer the following questions. Although most LMSs and even many syllabi are password-protected, you might also browse the web to find some examples.

Questions for Reflection and Discussion:

  1. Can you find specific examples of engaging language or experiences that really draw you into the course? What did you find engaging about these examples?
  2. Are there any examples that you found off-putting? How might you change the language or structure to make them more welcoming?
  3. Are there any features (e.g., organization, navigation, layout, etc.) that you found helpful in any way?
  4. Are there features that were less helpful? How could they be improved?

Establishing a Learning Community

Chapter 5 discussed the importance of fostering a positive classroom environment and recommended strategies such as expressing interest in and high expectations for all students, establishing ground rules for discussions, fostering student-to-student relationships, making expectations explicit, and having mechanisms in place to address microaggressions and other forms of bias. In credit courses, creating a positive classroom environment is even more important, since we will gather with the same group of learners for an extended period of time, and, potentially even more rewarding, since we have the opportunity to create a positive, engaging learning community where students can learn from and support one another. In fact, the sense that one belongs to a learning community has been shown to improve student motivation and retention in addition to learning (Gordon, 2016; Infande, 2013; Ludwig-Hardman & Dunlap 2003). Positive classroom relationships also lead to more productive, open discussions and small group work. Many of the specific techniques for creating a positive classroom environment discussed in Chapter 5 were tailored for workshops where we have limited time with students; this chapter revisits some of those same practices with an eye to the unique environment of credit courses and suggests additional practices to build a learning community.


As a first step, we should introduce ourselves to students, learn about them, and help them learn about one another. In face-to-face and synchronous courses, these introductions can be done on the first day of class. You might start by speaking briefly about your professional background, your teaching and scholarly interests, and your approach to the course. Student introductions can be done in a number of ways. In small classes, you can have students introduce themselves one at a time to the group; in larger courses, you might have students move into pairs or small groups to introduce themselves. If you also use these small groups to jump-start a conversation about the course content, for example by having students discuss what they hope to learn or having them respond to an intriguing course-related question, you can further build a learning community. Many instructors will also use an in-class poll or writing activity to solicit information about students. In asynchronous courses, we can create a forum in the LMS and ask everyone to share a written or video introduction. If we post our introduction to the same forum where students will post theirs, we can model good practice and jump-start the introductions process. See Activity 17.2 for practice developing a student introduction activity.


Activity 17.2: Developing a Student Introduction Activity

Choose a course that you could imagine yourself teaching. This could be a course in an information setting of your choice or one in another field of interest (e.g., cooking, bicycle repair, memoir writing, etc.). Imagine that you are setting up a message board for students to introduce themselves.

  1. Write your own introductory message. How would you introduce yourself to this group? What would you want them to know about you, and why? What kind of language would you use? What would you tell them about the class at this point?
  2. Draft a brief prompt to guide the students in their own introductions. What information would you ask them to share, and why? What kinds of questions could you ask to elicit that information? How might you encourage the students to interact with each other?

Establishing Community Norms

As noted earlier, credit-course instructors seeking to prompt constructive classroom discussion often establish guidelines, such as using inclusive language, respecting others’ views, and disagreeing in a civil manner. Example 17.4 provides a sample of such a statement. With the extra time afforded by a credit course, instructors can even engage students in creating these guidelines, thereby fostering a greater sense of ownership and personal commitment.


Example 17.4: Sample Communication Expectations Statement

The University of Illinois and the School of Information Sciences bring together people of diverse backgrounds, identities, and experiences, offering us unique opportunities to learn from and with one another. As members of the University community and this class, we have a shared responsibility to create a positive, inclusive classroom space where everyone is able to learn and thrive.

Please join me in creating a learning community characterized by collegial dialogue and mutual respect. This includes:

  • Recognizing the limitations of our own experience and seeking to understand and learn from the experiences of others.
  • Listening actively, with the goal of understanding rather than responding.
  • Making space for others to speak and encouraging quiet members of the group to contribute to discussions and activities.
  • Being aware of how our words and actions may be perceived by others and committing to acting and speaking respectfully and constructively.
  • Showing our commitment to our learning community and to one another by “calling in,” rather than calling out, when we witness problematic words and actions.

Peer Interaction

We can build peer interaction into our courses in many ways. Almost all of the strategies mentioned elsewhere in this book, such as think-pair-shares, whole-class and small-group discussion, debates, games, and so on, fit smoothly into credit-bearing courses. Because the class will meet on a regular basis, you can expand these activities to an entire class session or even multiple class sessions. Other strategies for classroom interaction include collaborative notes, in which students contribute to a collaborative document or graphic organizer; wisdom from another (Knapen, 2018); reflective questioning, in which students work together to develop (and perhaps try to answer) questions based on the material; role playing and skits; and collective brainstorms.

We can also build peer interaction into assignments. One relatively easy way to do this is through peer-critique processes where students give one another feedback on project drafts. Peer critiques can be done in person in face-to-face classes and via forum posts in online courses. Group projects are more complex to design, monitor, and grade, but when done well, can be very rewarding for students and instructors. We can also integrate peer interaction with assignments like journal clubs, student-led seminar discussions, and presentations.

Instructor Presence

Instructor presence is the perception on the part of students that we are invested in the course and students’ learning. A strong instructor presence supports student motivation, engagement, and satisfaction, and has been linked to improved learning (Martin et al., 2018). As a first step, we should make it clear how we are available to students who have questions or need assistance, whether in formal office hours, before or after class, at lunch or after school, or via phone and email. Students should receive a prompt reply to all phone and email inquiries; within 24 hours on weekdays is the norm, and instructors of online courses might also check email at least once over the weekend, particularly if a large assignment will be due. If you will be away or offline for an extended period, such as during travel, you should notify students and indicate when you will be available again.

In face-to-face and synchronous courses, we will naturally interact with students as we deliver lectures, lead discussions and in-class activities, and answer questions. In asynchronous courses, our presence may not be immediately visible to students unless we make a deliberate effort to appear present and engaged. We should make visible contributions to course content—for example, by posting reading guides and our own videos in addition to curating content from others, and by regularly participating in forum discussions and other course activities.

In both face-to-face and online courses, assignments are an excellent opportunity to interact with and guide individual learners. We should respond to assignments promptly and offer encouraging, developmental feedback. More specific strategies for designing assignments and giving effective feedback are discussed later in this chapter.

We can also create informal spaces to interact with students. In face-to-face and synchronous courses, we might arrive early and chat with students before class begins or offer to stay after class to meet with individuals. In online courses, we can create an open discussion forum for more casual conversations. Sharing personal information, such as weekend plans or your own struggles to learn the material, can also foster a sense of connection (Schwartz, 2020).

Designing Assignments and Providing Feedback

Like syllabi, assignments are a unique and essential feature of credit courses. Instructors sometimes approach assignments as a tool for assessment or determining grades, and certainly they fulfill both of these functions, but more importantly, assignments are vehicles for students to further develop their course-related knowledge and skills. Assignments can also provide options for students to tailor course content to their specific interests—for instance through their selection of a research topic. Thus, good assignment design starts by thinking about student learning and the role assignments will play in promoting meaningful learning. As part of designing an assignment, we should give thought to our grading criteria and how we will provide feedback.


All assignments should clearly relate to and support the achievement of the course’s learning outcomes. Beyond that, students appreciate creative, authentic assignments that mimic the real-world use of their knowledge and skills. For example, a research paper that is read only by the instructor may not feel very authentic, since most students will not be writing research papers in the workplace. On the other hand, almost everyone will be called upon to make presentations during their careers. An assignment to create a lightning talk will require that students research their topic and synthesize their findings, similar to a research paper, while also requiring that students create a visual aid and communicate their ideas clearly and cogently for an audience of peers—valuable skills for life and career success. Alternately, we can take a more traditional assignment and tweak it to provide an authentic element. For example, after finishing a research paper on a social issue, students could complete a follow-up assignment to write a letter to the editor encouraging a specific action on their issue. Additional ideas for creative and authentic assignments include infographics and posters, podcasts, videos, zines, and portfolios.

We can also look to social media as an inspiration for thought-provoking and fun assignments. Students might be asked to find a gif or create a meme that responds to a course topic. Stommel (2018) describes an assignment to write an essay about a course topic in 140 characters (at the time, the character limit for a Twitter post). One of the authors of this text, Melissa, uses a Twitter-inspired reflection in her instruction class, asking students to compose their own #4WordPedagogy. However, while we can use social media as an inspiration for timely, creative assignments, we should never require that students post their work to actual social media accounts. Most social media platforms require that users divulge personal information, and some students will be reluctant to share this information. In addition, sharing coursework on a public platform could identify the individual as a student in your course or at your institution, which would violate federal laws that protect student privacy.

Assignments are an excellent opportunity to integrate Universal Design for Learning (UDL) into your course, especially the principle of Multiple Means of Action and Expression. Remember from Chapter 6 that Multiple Means of Action and Expression suggests instructors provide flexible options for how students express what they know (Hall et al., 2012, p. 2). One strategy is to give students options for how they complete an assignment. For instance, students completing a short reflection could choose between writing a paragraph or turning their thoughts into a sketch. If we are assigning an annotated bibliography, we could encourage students to explore alternate ways of presenting their work, such as a concept map, timeline, or infographic. Another strategy for integrating Multiple Means of Action and Expression is allowing students to select between assignments or from a menu of possible assignments. Weimer (2002, p. 32-34; 2012) provides an excellent example of designing an entire course around a menu of assignment options. Providing students with choices also supports the critical pedagogy and humanist emphases on self-direction, agency, and self-actualization.

Group projects provide opportunities for student interaction and collaborative learning; they can also help students develop real-world skills in project management and communication. However, we should recognize that group projects can present challenges. Slattery and Carlson (2015, p. 161) write, “students report considerable anxiety when they are asked to do group work . . . especially when grades are heavily dependent on their groupmates’ output.” Brame and Biel (2015) recommend we explain the rationale for group assignments, and work with students to form groups where the members collectively possess the skills needed for the assignment. In online courses, if students will need to hold some meetings in real time, we can form groups around students’ availability. We can also support groups by establishing clear expectations, providing a structure for the group’s work, and periodically checking on each group’s progress (Brame & Biel, 2015; Walker Center, 2018). See Activity 17.3 for an exercise in creating course assignments.


Activity 17.3: Creating Course Assignments

Think back to the course you imagined teaching for Activity 17.2, and brainstorm three to four potential assignments.

Questions for Reflection and Discussion:

  1. Would you describe these assignments as authentic? What skills will students develop? If an assignment is not very authentic, how could you revise it to be more authentic?
  2. Taken together, are these assignments sufficiently varied that they support the principle of Multiple Means of Action and Expression? If not, what changes could you make?
  3. Identify the most complex assignment. How could you scaffold this assignment?
  4. How could you build an element of peer critiquing or group work into one or more of these assignments?


Regardless of the type of assignment, we should ensure we provide clear, explicit directions. While the syllabus may provide a brief overview of assignments and their relative weight, students will need additional guidance to fully understand our expectations. We can distribute and discuss detailed assignment directions at the point in the semester when students have the requisite knowledge and skills to begin the assignment. Examples of exemplar work or approaches to the assignment will also be very helpful for students.

Additional best practices for assignments include:

  • Remember less is more. While you want to have enough assignments that students can recover from a poor grade on one assignment, be careful not to overload your students with too much work. Fewer, higher-quality assignments will be more meaningful.
  • Vary assignments. Students bring different strengths and interests to the classroom. Balancing the types of assignments used in the course allows students to draw on existing strengths while also developing new skills. For example, a research paper that relies on strong expository writing skills could be balanced with a presentation or creative project.
  • Scaffold assignments. Large assignments can be particularly challenging for students. They may be unsure how to approach a complex project or could misunderstand the directions, waste time, or get hopelessly off track. If we scaffold large assignments into smaller pieces, we can ensure students stay on track and, by offering feedback along the way, improve student learning and engagement.

Grading and Feedback

Grading should be based on clear criteria that we develop during the assignment design process. Determining our grading criteria in advance will help us write clear assignment instructions, ensure grading is consistent and fair, and when shared with students ahead of time, eliminate confusion over assignment requirements and potentially reduce the number of questions we receive.

Along with developing our grading criteria, we should consider how we will provide feedback to students. As part of the grading process, we will need to explain why a particular grade was assigned, indicating what the student has done well and where there was room for improvement. At the same time, we should approach feedback as a teaching tool, one that we can use to indicate how well students have mastered the course goals and to provide suggestions for continued learning and growth. As such, our feedback should be specific and constructive (Chappell, 2019). Because students will become overwhelmed if we provide too much or tangential feedback, we should keep our comments limited and related to the goals of the assignment (Ambrose et al., 2010). Feedback should also be timely so that students can act on our suggestions before the next assignment is due.

A common tool for articulating grading criteria and providing feedback is a rubric. Rubrics can be very simple, such as an answer key for a worksheet or a checklist that outlines the elements of an assignment and their relative weights, or more complex, such as the grid-style rubric discussed in Chapter 9. As a grading tool, rubrics support consistent grading and can streamline the process of providing feedback. For instance, rather than writing lengthy comments on an assignment, we can highlight the portions of the rubric that best describe the student’s work and add brief constructive suggestions. We should share our rubrics with students as part of the assignment directions, since rubrics will clarify our expectations and may even encourage students to reflect on and self-assess their own learning (Stevens & Levi, 2005, p. 19). Keep in mind that not all students will have used rubrics before, and it may be helpful to discuss the rubric when you review the assignment directions.

Additional best practices and tips for grading and feedback:

  • Grading can be time-consuming, especially for large assignments. As you create your syllabus and establish due dates, consider other obligations you will have, such as conference travel, that may impact the time available for grading. Once you have established due dates, plan ahead and block time on your calendar.
  • For smaller assignments or those that will be reviewed in class, consider “light grading” strategies such as check minus/check/check plus (Center for Teaching, n.d.).
  • Leverage technology to make the feedback process more efficient. For example, if you find yourself making the same comments repeatedly, you can create a document of frequently used phrases, and cut and paste as needed. For written projects, using track changes and review functions to make comments in line with student writing will save time over writing out comments in narrative form.
  • If students are tackling a common set of problems, post the answers in a forum for students to review. Comments on students’ papers can be brief, such as “This answer is partially correct. 8/10 points.”
  • Utilize peer review. Peer review increases the amount of individual feedback for each student, since they can get feedback from two to three people, not just the instructor. Peer review works best if you create a clear structure for the process and discuss the importance of giving constructive, well-balanced feedback.

Selecting Instructional Strategies and Designing Lesson Plans

Once you have determined the structure of your course, written the syllabus, and developed the assignments, you will be ready to plan for specific class sessions or online modules. As we plan lessons and modules, we should revisit our course-level outcomes. In some cases, we may identify a course-level outcome that will apply to a specific class session; in other cases, we will need to develop more specific lesson-level outcomes. Once we have determined our lesson-level outcomes, we can select instructional strategies and design lesson plans as outlined in Chapter 10.

Many of the instructional strategies discussed in Chapter 10, including lectures, discussions, and small group activities, will work equally well in credit courses; in fact, you may find that as students become familiar with activities like think-pair-share, you will be able to move into them very quickly with minimal explanation. Also, the additional time available in credit courses may allow you to dig more deeply into activities like role playing and skits, providing more opportunities for student creativity and engagement. While this chapter will not reiterate all of the instructional strategies from Chapter 10, it will address a few unique aspects of using those strategies in credit courses.

Small Group Work

In face-to-face courses, we can easily move students into small groups for a short discussion or task or even an extended case-study activity. However, we should be aware that students tend to sit in the same seat, often near their friends, for each class session. If we want students to work with a wider variety of peers over the course of the semester, we should vary how we create groups. We can mix it up by having students number off, or posting different questions or scenarios around the room and asking students to move to a group of interest.

In synchronous courses, the live session technology we are using should allow us to move students into random groups of various sizes or create group rooms that students can self-select into. The first few times you use small groups may feel awkward; however, the process will get smoother as the semester progresses. Chapter 15 provides advice on structuring small group work in online environments.

Forum Discussions

In online courses, discussion forums are an excellent opportunity for peer interaction and collaborative learning. In fact, in asynchronous courses, discussion forums may be the primary way in which students interact with one another and the instructor. Each discussion forum should have a specific purpose. Oftentimes, forum discussions are based on readings and lecture materials; however, varying the way we utilize forums will offset boredom and heighten student engagement. For example, you could ask students to respond to a case study, share their solution to a problem, locate and summarize an outside reading or resource, or post a question they have or a challenge they are facing.

Forum discussions should have a consistent, clear structure, including due dates for initial posts and responses to others. While forum discussions should be student driven, we should read and respond to discussions on a regular basis. We do not need to respond to every post but should answer questions raised by students, pose questions to further discussion, and respond to any inappropriate comments. Research shows that this kind of instructor presence improves student satisfaction and motivation as well as learning (Croxton, 2014).

Flipped Classrooms

In traditionally structured courses, students attend class to listen to lectures and watch demonstrations, then apply their knowledge and practice problem solving via homework. In flipped classrooms, instructors post their lectures as videos for students to watch prior to class, then use class time for hands-on practice and problem solving with the instructor’s guidance. Educause (2012) and Brame (2013) provide practical advice on using the flipped classroom approach.

Case-Based Learning

In case-based learning, instructors present students with a scenario for discussion. We can write our own case studies, draw on recent news items, or look for published case studies. Cases are often presented as stories outlining a real-world problem, challenge, or ethical dilemma. These cases should be “messy,” or open ended enough to allow for multiple approaches and solutions, but these scenarios must include enough detail to support an informed discussion. Even if we plan to write our own cases, we might find it helpful to read established cases to get a sense of the types of scenarios and appropriate level of detail. We should also seek out or develop cases that span a wide variety of settings and that feature characters of diverse backgrounds.

Problem-Based Learning

Problem-based learning uses an inquiry-based approach. The instructor presents students with an authentic, ill-structured problem, and students work in small groups to identify possible solutions (Genareo & Lyons, 2015). Robert Delisle (1997, p.2) points out, “educators who use problem-based learning recognize that in the world outside of school, adults build their knowledge and skills as they solve a real problem or answer an important question—not through abstract exercises.” In true problem-based learning, the instructor presents the problem and allows students to direct their own learning, serving as a guide or facilitator rather than providing direct instruction (Delisle, 1997). Problem-based learning can be time-consuming and is most appropriate for courses where students have some background knowledge. However, we can also take a more scaffolded approach by presenting students with smaller or simpler scenarios, giving them time to reflect on approaches individually or in groups, and then working through the possible solutions with the class.

Universal Design for Learning

As we plan lessons and modules, Universal Design for Learning will be a valuable framework. As discussed in detail in Chapter 6, the UDL framework encourages us to design our courses to be accessible to all learners. By intentionally varying our approach to learning, offering students options for engaging with content and demonstrating learning, and being attentive to the design and presentation of materials, we can ensure that our courses are accessible to students with various disabilities and increase accessibility and comfort for all learners.

Supporting Students

Despite good intentions and hard work, students may struggle in your course. As instructors, we can take steps to prevent or mitigate these struggles and to identify students who may need extra support. Many of the strategies mentioned elsewhere in this chapter, including establishing instructor presence, scaffolding assignments, and offering time-management tools like an assignment calendar, will go a long way toward ensuring student success.

Another strategy for supporting students, especially in online courses, is course announcements with reminders of upcoming assignments and due dates. Not only will these reminders help students stay on track with coursework and ensure due dates are not overlooked, they can establish instructor presence and provide an easy venue for students to respond with assignment-related questions. Announcements that provide a wrap-up of the week’s discussion, a preview of upcoming readings, and/or generalized feedback on assignments can also help students see linkages in course content and how different elements support their learning. These announcements can be given in class, posted in a dedicated announcements forum, and/or emailed to students. Announcements will be most effective if they happen on a regular, predictable basis, such as at the beginning of class or every Friday.

We can also reach out to students who may need extra support. Missed assignments or class sessions (or in online courses, not logging in to the course space for long periods of time) and dropping grades can be red flags that a student is struggling. For students experiencing a temporary illness or setback, offering flexibility with due dates or indicating that you look forward to seeing them back in class next week may be enough to help them re-engage with the course. If they are struggling with the course materials or assignments, we can invite students to office hours to review course materials, suggest supplemental learning resources, or help them brainstorm assignment topics and approaches.

We may also come across students who are struggling with issues outside of the classroom or with issues that are beyond our expertise to address. In both school and academic settings, it is not uncommon to encounter students facing academic struggles, mental health issues, financial challenges, and even food or housing insecurity. Students may be reluctant to seek help or unaware of what resources exist; instructors can play an important role in connecting students to writing and tutoring centers, counseling services, financial aid offices, food banks, and the like. Links in the syllabus or learning management system and in-class announcements can raise awareness of available services and normalize the idea of asking for help. Instructors can also reach out to individual students and make referrals or facilitate connections with other campus offices and local agencies.

Evaluating and Improving Credit Courses

As noted in Chapter 13, while learning is our main focus as instructors, we should also attend to learner satisfaction and perceived quality of our courses. Credit courses, because they consist of multiple classroom interactions over an extended period of time, provide many opportunities for evaluation, both throughout the semester and as the course ends.

In higher education in particular, instructors are almost always required to conduct a formal, end-of-course evaluation, typically utilizing a standardized form or online system provided by the institution. If your institution does not require participation in an institutional process, you can create your own end-of-course evaluation using the tools in your learning management system or a site like SurveyMonkey. If you are creating your own evaluation or if you are able to customize portions of an institutional evaluation form, the guidelines for surveys given in Chapter 13 will help you write good questions that will solicit meaningful feedback.

Course evaluations will bring a mix of useful and not-so-useful feedback. As you review student comments, focus on the feedback that will be most helpful in improving your instruction, and avoid obsessing over every negative comment. We should also be aware that evaluation scores tend to be lower for required courses and for female instructors and instructors of color; female instructors may also find that students are more likely to make comments about their appearance (Buskist & Hogan, 2009; Gravestock et al., 2009). While we should take student feedback seriously, we should focus on the feedback that is relevant to improving instruction and be cautious about using evaluations to compare individual instructors or make promotion decisions.

In credit courses, we have a unique opportunity to solicit and respond to student feedback while the course is ongoing. One useful tool is a midterm evaluation. Midterm evaluations are typically brief and informal. Instructors can ask for feedback on the course in general or on specific elements, such as lectures or in-class activities. Typical questions might be:

  • Which aspects of the course are most helpful for your learning?
  • What changes, if any, would you recommend in our class sessions?
  • Do you find the small group activities helpful? How can they be improved?
  • Do you feel prepared to complete the [assignment]? What questions do you have, or where are you struggling?

If you use a midterm course evaluation, you should briefly summarize the results for students and indicate what changes you plan to make, so that students know their feedback was valued. In addition to midterm evaluations, short reflective writing assignments, such as minute papers and the Critical Incident Questionnaire, can be used to gather student feedback through the semester.

We can also use video recordings and peer observations to evaluate our teaching, both of which are addressed in Chapter 13. And the process of reflective teaching, discussed in Chapter 14, is very applicable to teaching credit courses. Smith (2012) suggests three questions that we can ask ourselves after every class session:

  1. What went excellently today, and why?
  2. What could have been better, and how?
  3. What do I want to change in my teaching?

As we engage in ongoing evaluation, we may be able to implement changes as quickly as the next class session or online module, or we may identify more substantial changes to make in the next iteration of the course. For the latter, we will need to record these ideas lest they be forgotten. One of the authors, Melissa, maintains an online document of “changes to make” for each course she teaches, so that she can quickly and easily jot down her reflections at the end of a class session or while grading assignments.

Instructors teaching online courses can also look to the Online Learning Consortium (OLC) and Quality Matters (QM) for guidance on creating high-quality courses. OLC’s “Quality Course Teaching & Instructional Practices” scorecard addresses 10 areas of course design, listing specific best practices for each area. QM’s “Higher Education Rubric” addresses eight areas of course design; despite the name, the rubric is very applicable to K-12 settings. QM’s rubrics for evaluating publisher products and online instructor skills are also very valuable. While a QM membership is needed for access to the full, annotated rubrics, nonannotated versions are available on its website.


While much library instruction is delivered through workshops and one-shot sessions, some school and academic librarians will have the opportunity to create semester- or year-long courses. These credit-bearing courses allow us to really get to know our students, delve more deeply into content, and engage in time-intensive activities. While many of the instructional design practices shared throughout this text apply to credit-bearing courses, we have some additional considerations to address. The main takeaways from this chapter are:

  • When planning credit courses, we can follow the same steps as we would for workshops by getting to know our learners, establishing learning outcomes, and selecting formative and summative assessments to monitor learning.
  • When meeting with the same group of students over a number of weeks, we have an opportunity to develop a community of learning in which students engage with and support one another while interacting with the course content.
  • Syllabi should present course requirements and instructor expectations concisely and clearly, establish a warm classroom environment, and engage students in the course content.
  • Assignments should link to the course learning outcomes and offer students a chance to practice skills and apply knowledge in ways that are meaningful and relevant to their academic and career goals.
  • Meaningful feedback helps students improve their skills and deepen their knowledge. We should provide timely and constructive feedback that highlights what students have done well and offers strategies for improvement.
  • Multiweek courses afford us opportunities to engage in a mix of instructional strategies, including more time-intensive approaches like case studies and problem-based learning.
  • Evaluation is an important component of teaching credit courses. In addition to administering end-of-semester evaluations, instructors can conduct midterm evaluations and use tools like a Critical Incident Questionnaire to solicit and respond to student feedback during the semester.

Suggested Readings

Accessible syllabus. (2015).

This website offers clear, practical advice for developing accessible syllabi with illustrative examples. It addresses text, images, and policy with an emphasis on welcoming and engaging language.

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DePietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. Jossey-Bass.

The authors present seven areas of learning, from the role of prior knowledge and motivation to the importance of practice and feedback to issues of classroom climate. Each principle is covered in its own chapter, with an overview of relevant research and strategies for implementing the principle in practice.

Bryans-Bongey, S., & Graziano, K. J. (Eds.). (2016). Online teaching in K-12: Models, methods, and best practices for teachers and administrators. Information Today.

This collection of essays from experienced teachers provides practical advice for elementary and secondary school instructors planning online courses and programs. The topics addressed range from LMS design to engaging learners and creating community. With chapters on universal design and special education, the book also addresses the needs of students with disabilities.

Faculty Focus. Magna Publications.

This portal offeres succinct, evidence-based articles on a wide range of teaching topics. Some materials require a subscription, but a substantial proportion are freely available.

Gonzalez, J. (2015, October 15). The big list of class discussion strategies. Cult of Pedagogy.

Gonzalez provides a wealth of strategies for engaging and active discussions. Although many of the examples are structured for face-to-face classrooms, most could be adapted for online classrooms. This resource is also available as a podcast episode.

Harnish, R. J., McElwee, R. O., Slattery, J. M., Franz, S., Haney, M. R., Shore, C. M., & Penley, J. (2011, January). Creating the foundation for a warm classroom environment. Observer, 24, 23-27.

The authors provide suggestions for and examples of specific language that will create a warm and welcoming syllabus.

Hess, A. K. N., & Greer, K. (2016). Designing for engagement: Using the ADDIE model to integrate high-impact practices into an online information literacy course.  Communications in Information Literacy, 10, 264-82.

The authors outline the process of using the ADDIE model, similar to Backward Design, to plan a credit information literacy course. The discussion of specific course modules and activities may be of interest to librarians planning credit information literacy courses.

Major, C. H., Harris, M. S., & Zakrajsek, T. (2016). Teaching for learning: 101 intentionally designed activities to put students on the path to success. Routledge.

The authors offer a wealth of active learning activities, with descriptions, directions for implementation, and suggestions for activity pairings. The book includes suggestions for interactive lectures, discussions, reading, writing, and reflecting, accompanied by explanations of how each approach contributes to learning.

Martin, F., Wang, C., & Sadaf, A. (2018). Student perception of helpfulness of facilitation strategies that enhance instructor presence, connectedness, engagement and learning in online courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 37, 52-65.

This article provides an overview of strategies for increasing engagement and instructor presence in online courses, with advice for implementation.

McKeachie, W. J., & Svinicki, M. (2006). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Houghton Mifflin.

This handy volume provides clear and concise advice on creating and delivering credit courses. Chapters are brief and to the point and integrate concrete examples and supplementary readings. Topics include planning the course, developing the syllabus, building community, selecting pedagogical strategies, teaching culturally diverse students, and motivating students.

Miller, M. (2014). Minds online: Teaching effectively with technology. Harvard University Press.

Drawing on research related to attention, memory, thinking, and motivation related to learning, Miller provides clear and practical advice for effective online teaching.

Nilson, L. B., & Goodson, L. A. (2017). Online teaching at its best: Merging instructional design with teaching and learning research. Jossey-Bass.

Nilson and Goodson provide a systematic and research-based approach to designing and delivering online courses. The introductory chapter provides a clear overview of best practices that cut across modalities. The rest of the book uses an evidence-based approach to address such topics as student motivation, interaction and engagement, and accessibility within the online environment, along with practical advice and helpful examples.

Rapchak, M. E. (2017). Creating a community of inquiry in online library instruction. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 11(1-2), 59-67.

Using the Community of Inquiry model as a framework, Rapchak provides numerous suggestions for establishing instructor presence, engaging students, and promoting critical thinking in both online workshops and credit courses. This article is highly recommended both for the discussion of the Community of Inquiry model and the wealth of concrete teaching strategies.

Rapchak, M. (2019). When online instruction doesn’t measure up: How can you tell, and what should you do? Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 13(1-2), 150-158.

Librarians at Duquesne University offer an information literacy credit course in both face-to-face and online modalities. Early iterations of the online course revealed lower levels of student satisfaction and performance, leading Rapchak and her colleagues to revise the course. Rapchak provides concrete suggestions for increasing student engagement and peer interaction, along with practical tips for teaching online. The discussion of specific course modules and activities will also be of interest to librarians planning credit information literacy courses.

Rose, D., Harbour, W., Johnston, C. S., Daley, S., & Abarbanell, L. (2006). Universal Design for Learning in postsecondary education: Reflections on principles and their application. National Center on Universal Design for Learning.

In this case study of implementing universal design in a graduate course, the authors provide a clear and straightforward overview of UDL, along with practical advice.

Shapiro, M. (2015). HBR guide to leading teams. Harvard Business Review Press.

Although written for the workplace, this book has valuable advice on creating and leading effective teams that instructors can mine when planning group projects.

Slattery, J. M., & Carlson, J. F. (2015). Preparing an effective syllabus: Current best practices. College Teaching, 53(4), 159-164.

Slattery and Carlson give helpful advice for designing a syllabus that will engage and motivate students, with attention to common concerns and good practices.

Stevens, D. D., & Levi, A. J. (2005). Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback, and promote student learning. Stylus.

The authors explain the purpose and value of rubrics, and offer a clear and concise guide to developing and using rubrics. This text is supplemented by a number of useful examples.

Weimer, M. (2002). Learner centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. Jossey-Bass.

In this classic work, Weimer identifies characteristics of learner-centered teaching and offers advice for implementing these student-centered approaches grouped around five key areas of practice.

Wong, M. A. (2019). Instructional design for LIS professionals: A guide for teaching librarians and information science professionals. Libraries Unlimited.

While Wong’s book will be most helpful to librarians who are teaching courses and professional development sessions for LIS professionals, Chapter 6 on assignments provides cogent advice on managing grading, providing effective feedback, and utilizing peer review to increase student interaction and feedback.


Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DePietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. Jossey-Bass.

Brame, C. J. (2013). Flipping the classroom. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching.

Brame, C. J., & Biel, R. (2015). Setting up and facilitating group work: Using cooperative learning groups effectively. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching.

Buskist, C., & Hogan, J. (2009). She needs a haircut and a new pair of shoes: Handling those pesky course evaluations. Journal of Effective Teaching, 10(1), 51-56 (EJ1092114). ERIC.

Canada, M. (2013). The syllabus: A place to engage students’ egos. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 135, 37-42.

Center for Teaching. (n.d.). Grading Student Work. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching.

Chappell, K. (2019, March 11). The almond joy of providing feedback to students. Faculty Focus.

Croxton, R. A. (2014). The role of interactivity in student satisfaction and persistence in online learning. MERLOT Journal of Online Teaching and Learning, 10, 314-325.

Delisle, R. (1997). How to use problem-based learning in the classroom. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Educause. (2012, February 7). 7 things you should know about flipped classrooms.

Genareo, V. R., & Lyons, R. (2015, November 30). Problem-based learning: Six steps to design, implement, and assess. Faculty Focus.

Gordon, S. S. (2016). Graduate student retention: An examination of factors affecting persistence among master’s program students at comprehensive public institutions. [Doctoral dissertation, Western Kentucky University]. TopSCHOLAR.

Gravestock, P., Greenleaf, E., & Boggs, A. M. (2009). The validity of student course evaluations: An eternal debate? Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching, 2, 152-158 (EJ1057169). ERIC.

Hall, T. E., Meyer, A., & Rose, D. H. (2012). Universal design for learning in the classroom: Practical applications. Guilford Press.

Infande, A. (2013). A dozen strategies for improving online student retention. Faculty Focus.

Knapen, R. (2018, June 13). 20 interactive teaching activities for in the interactive classroom. BookWidgets.

Ludwig-Hardman, S., & Dunlap, J. (2003). Learner support services for online students: Scaffolding for success. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(1).

Ludy, M, Brackenbury, T., Folkins, J. M., Peer, S. H., Langendorfer, S. J., & Beining, K. (2016). Student impressions of syllabus design: Engaging versus contractual syllabus. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(2), 1-23.

Martin, F., Wang, C., & Sadaf, A. (2018). Student perception of helpfulness of facilitation strategies that enhance instructor presence, connectedness, engagement and learning in online courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 37, 52-65.

Quality Matters. QM rubrics & standards.

Schwartz, H. (2020). Faculty authenticity and self-disclosure. Connected teaching: The five minute boost.

Slattery, J. M., & Carlson, J. F. (2015). Preparing an effective syllabus: Current best practices. College Teaching, 53(4), 159-164.

Smith, N. (2012, October 30). Reflective practice in higher education instruction. The evoLLLution.

Stevens, D. D., & Levi, A. J. (2005). Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback, and promote student learning. Stylus.

Stommel, J. (2018). The Twitter essay. In S. M. Morris & J. Stommel (Eds.), An urgency of teachers (pp. 147-153). Hybrid Pedagogy.

Walker Center for Teaching and Learning. (2018). Evaluating groups – fairly. University of Tennessee Chattanooga.

Weimer, M. (2002). Learner centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. Jossey-Bass.

Weimer, M. (2012). Giving students choices in how assignments are weighted. Faculty Focus.

Weimer, M. (2018, January 10). As you’re preparing the syllabus . . . The Teaching Professor.

Wong, M. A. (2019). Instructional design for LIS professionals: A guide for teaching librarians and information science professionals. Libraries Unlimited.


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